LIDO terminology

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The LIDO Terminology refers to LIDO – Lightweight Information Describing Objects, the XML Schema for contributing content to cultural heritage repositories, provided by the CIDOC LIDO Working Group. It complements the LIDO v1.0 specification and is intended to further enhance the interoperability of LIDO data across different collections by introducing controlled type vocabularies for certain LIDO elements and attributes.

The LIDO Terminology is committed to the Linked Open Data paradigm by making each LIDO Term referenceable through a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). It is recommended best practice to use the URI from the namespace to indicate the type of a LIDO element or attribute. The primary objective of this practice is to support data providers in adapting or mapping their data structures to LIDO, thus facilitating the processing of LIDO data for service providers, increasing the interoperability of LIDO data, and supporting information retrieval across different collections.

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What is in the LIDO Terminology?

The following elements and attributes from the LIDO v1.0 specification are currently covered by the LIDO Terminology.

– identifier@type
Applies for: actorID@type, conceptID@type, descriptiveNoteID@type, eventID@type, legalBodyID@type, lidoRecID@type, objectID@type , objectPublishedID@type, placeID@type, recordInfoID@type, recordID@type, resourceID@type
– recordMetadataDate@type
– recordType
– repositorySet@type
– resourceRepresentation@type
– termMaterialsTech@type

In progress:
– actor@type
– eventType

The LIDO Terminology provides a list of terms for some LIDO elements or attributes, in order to allow more precision in indexing. Each of these value lists is called a LIDO Vocabulary. Each value in the LIDO Vocabularies is named LIDO Term for legacy reasons, though these values should be referred to as “concepts”, rather than terms.

LIDO Terms are displayed in the xTree public view. A LIDO Term is identified by a URI and has at least a preferred label in English and a definition. It may also have preferred labels in other languages, alternative labels, semantic relations to other LIDO Terms, and a scope note. Wherever possible the definition is taken from or references to authoritative sources (e.g., the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model or the Categories for the Description of Works of Art).

The list of LIDO Terms for one LIDO element or attribute can be either flat or hierarchically structured, and it can be either a complete list or may allow for extensions within more specific use cases. Examples are
– for a flat and complete list: identifier@type;
– for a hierarchically structured and extensible list: eventType.

In a LIDO record, the (symbolic) URI of the LIDO Term should be used as the value for the respective LIDO element or attribute. For LIDO type attributes, be aware of the difference between the LIDO Term which qualifies the type of the LIDO element, and the “indexing term” which represents the actual data for information retrieval. For instance, given that a LIDO element “termMaterialsTech” carries a type attribute of “material” with URI, then the indexing term could be, e.g., “wood (plant material)” with URI

The LIDO XML would then look as follows:

<lido:termMaterialsTech lido:type="">
 <lido:conceptID lido:type="">
 <lido:term lido:pref="preferred">
 wood (plant material)

LIDO XML example records will be provided for more detailed illustration.